What are Marmorkrebs?
“Marmorkrebs” is an informal name given to marbled crayfish that were discovered by hobbyists in Germany in the late 1990s. “Marmorkrebs” roughly translates from German as “marbled crab.” The scientific name for Marmorkrebs is Procambarus virginalis (previously Procambarus fallax f. virginalis). They are an asexual relative of slough crayfish (Procambarus fallax) that live across Florida and southern Georgia in the United States. There are no known native populations of Marmorkrebs in North America; the only known cases of them in the wild are where they have been introduced by humans.
Marmorkrebs are parthenogenetic: they are all females, and reproduce without sex. This is the only decapod crustacean found that reproduces only this way, giving it incredible potential as a model organism for research. Some of the advantages of Marmorkrebs are that they are genetically identical, reproduce at high rates, and are easy to care for.
Marmorkrebs are also an invasive species. They have been introducted in many places, and have established populations in at least many countries, damaging agriculture and threatening native species. Marmorkrebs should not be used for bait (see here), kept in outdoor tanks or ponds (Marmorkrebs can migrate over land; see here), or placed in any other situation where they could be released into natural ecosystems. In North America, Marmorkrebs are prohibited in Missouri (since 2011) and Tennessee (since 2015). The European Union banned possession, trade, transport, production, and release of Marmorkrebs (and several other crayfish species) in 2016.
View Marmorkrebs introductions in a larger map
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The portal for the complete Marmorkrebs genome is at http://marmorkrebs.dkfz.de/.
Colonies and stocks
For a more comprehensive list of research papers, click here.
Velisek J, Stara A, Zuskova E, Kubec J, Buric M, Kouba A. Effects of s-metolachlor on early life stages of marbled crayfish. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology: in press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2018.11.007
Weiperth A, Gál B, Kuříková P, Langrová I, Kouba A, Patoka J. Risk assessment of pet-traded decapod crustaceans in Hungary with evidence of Cherax quadricarinatus (von Martens, 1868) in the wild. North–Western Journal of Zoology: in press, e171303. http://biozoojournals.ro/nwjz/content/acc/nwjz_e171303_Weiperth_acc.pdf
2019 research papers
Anastácio PM, Ribeiro F, Capinha C, Banha F, Gama M, Filipe AF, Rebelo R, Sousa R. 2019. Non-native freshwater fauna in Portugal: A review. Science of The Total Environment 650: 1923-1934. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.09.251
Fořt M, Hossain MS, Kouba A, Buřič M, Kozák P. 2019. Agonistic interactions and dominance establishment in three crayfish species non-native to Europe. Limnologica 74: 73-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.limno.2018.11.003
Shinji J, Gotoh H, Miyanishi H, Lavine MD, Lavine LC. 2019. The activin signaling transcription factor Smox is an essential regulator of appendage size during regeneration after autotomy in the crayfish. Evolution & Development 21(1). 44-55https://doi.org/10.1111/ede.12277
2018 research papers
Císar P, Saberioon M, Kozák P, Pautsina A. 2018. Fully contactless system for crayfish heartbeat monitoring: undisturbed crayfish as bio-indicator. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 255(1): 29-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2017.07.160
Deidun A, Sciberras A, Formosa J, Zava B, Insacco G, Corsini-Foka M, Crandall KA. 2018. Invasion by non-indigenous freshwater decapods of Malta and Sicily, central Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Crustacean Biology 38(6): 748–753. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jcbiol/ruy076
Gatzmann F, Falckenhayn C, Gutekunst J, Hanna K, Raddatz G, Carneiro VC, Lyko FJE. 2018. The methylome of the marbled crayfish links gene body methylation to stable expression of poorly accessible genes. Epigenetics & Chromatin 11(1): 57. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13072-018-0229-6
Göpel T, Wirkner CS. 2018. Morphological description, character conceptualization and the reconstruction of ancestral states exemplified by the evolution of arthropod hearts. PLOS ONE 13(9): e0201702. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201702
Gutekunst J, Andriantsoa R, Falckenhayn C, Hanna K, Stein W, Rasamy J, Lyko F. 2018. Clonal genome evolution and rapid invasive spread of the marbled crayfish. Nature Ecology and Evolution 2(3): 567–573. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-018-0467-9
Herrmann A, Schnabler A, Martens A. 2018. Phenology of overland dispersal in the invasive crayfish Faxonius immunis (Hagen) at the Upper Rhine River area. Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems 419: 30. https://doi.org/10.1051/kmae/2018018
Hossain MS, Patoka J, Kouba A, Buřič M. Clonal crayfish as biological model: a review on marbled crayfish. Biologia 73(9): 841-855. https://doi.org/10.2478/s11756-018-0098-2
Linzmaier SM, Goebel LS, Ruland F, Jeschke JM. 2018. Behavioral differences in an over-invasion scenario: marbled vs. spiny-cheek crayfish. Ecosphere 9(9): e02385. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.2385
Maguire I, Klobucar G, Žganec K, Jelic M, Lucic A, Hudina S. 2018. Recent changes in distribution pattern of freshwater crayfish in Croatia - threats and perspectives. Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems 419: 2. https://doi.org/10.1051/kmae/2017053
Marenkov O, Batalov K, Kriachek O. 2018. Biological and biomechanical principles of the controlling molluscs Melanoides tuberculata (Müller 1774) and Tarebia granifera (Lamarck, 1822) in reservoirs of strategic importance World Scientific News 99: 71-83. http://psjd.icm.edu.pl/psjd/element/bwmeta1.element.psjd-c88f8d40-b81a-4b84-b757-0998d39099d1
Marenkov O, Lykholat T, Kurchenko V, Nesterenko O. 2018. Histology of marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis (Lyko, 2017): annotated atlas. World News of Natural Sciences 21: 141-153. http://www.worldnewsnaturalsciences.com/article-in-press/2018-2/21-2018/
Marenkov O, Prychepa M, Kovalchuk J. 2018. The influence of heavy metal ions on the viability and metabolic enzyme activity of the marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis (Lyko, 2017). International Letters of Natural Sciences 70: 11-23. https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILNS.70.11
Naboka A, Marenkov O, Kovalchuk J, Shapovalenko Z, Nesterenko O, Dzhobolda B. 2018. Parameters of the histological adaptation of Marmorkrebs Procambarus virginalis (Lyko, 2017) (Decapoda, Cambaridae) to manganese, nickel and lead ions pollution. International Letters of Natural Sciences 70: 24-33. https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILNS.70.24
Neff EP. 2018. The Marmorkrebs model. Lab Animal 47(4): 107-107. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41684-018-0030-y
Nentwig W, Bacher S, Kumschick S, Pyšek P, Vilŕ M. 2018. More than “100 worst” alien species in Europe. Biological Invasions 20(6): 1611–1621. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-017-1651-6
Nischik ES, Krieger J. 2018. Evaluation of standard imaging techniques and volumetric preservation of nervous tissue in genetically identical offspring of the crayfish Procambarus fallax cf. virginalis (Marmorkrebs). PeerJ 6: e5181. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5181
Scholz S, Richter S, Wirkner CS. 2018. Constant morphological patterns in the hemolymph vascular system of crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda). Arthropod Structure & Development 47(3): 248-267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asd.2017.12.005
Velisek J, Stara A, Zuskova E, Kubec J, Buric M, Kouba A. 2018. Chronic toxicity of metolachlor OA on growth, ontogenetic development, antioxidant biomarkers and histopathology of early life stages of marbled crayfish. Science of The Total Environment 643: 1456-1463. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.309
Vogt G. 2018. Investigating the genetic and epigenetic basis of big biological questions with the parthenogenetic marbled crayfish: A review and perspectives. Journal of Biosciences 43(1): 189-223. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12038-018-9741-x
Vogt G. 2018. Annotated bibliography of the parthenogenetic marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis, a new research model, potent invader and popular pet. Zootaxa 4418(4): 301-352. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4418.4.1
Vogt G. 2018. Glair glands and spawning in unmated crayfish: a comparison between gonochoristic slough crayfish and parthenogenetic marbled crayfish. Invertebrate Zoology 15(2): 215–220. https://doi.org/10.15298/invertzool.15.2.02, http://kmkjournals.com/journals/Inv_Zool/IZ_Index_Volumes/IZ_15/IZ_15_2_215_220_Vogt
Vogt G, Dorn NJ, Pfeiffer M, Lukhaup C, Williams BW, Schulz R, Schrimpf A. 2018. In-depth investigation of the species problem and taxonomic status of marbled crayfish, the first asexual decapod crustacean. BioRxiv: 26 June 2018. https://doi.org/10.1101/356170 [Unreviewed pre-print]
Vogt G, Lukhaup C, Williams BW, Pfeiffer M, Dorn NJ, Schulz R, Schrimpf A. 2018. Morphological characterization and genotyping of the marbled crayfish and new evidence on its origin. Zootaxa 4524(3): 329–350. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4524.3.3
Zeng Y, Yeo DCJ. 2018. Assessing the aggregated risk of invasive crayfish and climate change to freshwater crabs: A Southeast Asian case study. Biological Conservation 223: 58-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2018.04.033
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Missouri has added Marmorkrebs to its prohibited species list, effective 1 March 2011. Read more here. Tennessee designated Marmorkrebs as “Class V wildlife,” meaning they can only be kept by zoos, effective October 2015. Read more here and here.
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This site maintained by Zen Faulkes. Last updated 14 January 2018.