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Adult Marmorkrebs

What are Marmorkrebs?

“Marmorkrebs” is an informal name given to marbled crayfish that were discovered by hobbyists in Germany in the late 1990s.

Marmorkrebs are parthenogenetic: they are all females, and reproduce without sex. This is the only decapod crustacean found that reproduces only this way, giving it incredible potential as a model organism for research. Some of the advantages of Marmorkrebs are that they are genetically identical, reproduce at high rates, and are easy to care for.

“Marmorkrebs” roughly translates from German as “marbled crab.” The scientific name for Marmorkrebs is Procambarus virginalis or Procambarus fallax f. virginalis; they are an asexual relative of slough crayfish (P. fallax) that live across Florida and southern Georgia in the United States. There are no known native populations of Marmorkrebs in North America; the only known cases of them in the wild are where they have been introduced by humans.

Marmorkrebs are also an invasive species. They have been introducted in many places, and have established populations in at least three countries, damaging agriculture and threatening native species. Marmorkrebs should not be used for bait (see here), kept in outdoor tanks or ponds (Marmorkrebs can migrate over land; see here), or placed in any other situation where they could be released into natural ecosystems. In North America, Marmorkrebs are prohibited in Missouri (since 2011) and Tennessee (since 2015). The European Union banned possession, trade, transport, production, and release of Marmorkrebs (and several other crayfish species) in 2016.


Marmorkrebs introductions


View Marmorkrebs introductions in a larger map

Timeline


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Research

Genome

The portal for the complete Marmorkrebs genome is at http://marmorkrebs.dkfz.de/.

Colonies and stocks

NSF logo

North American researchers can contact Zen Faulkes to get Marmorkrebs for research. Establishment of the Faulkes lab Marmorkrebs colony was supported by the National Science Foundation (award 0813581).

Cover gallery

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Forthcoming research papers

NewOpen Access Gutekunst J, Andriantsoa R, Falckenhayn C, Hanna K, Stein W, Rasamy J, Lyko F. 2018. Clonal genome evolution and rapid invasive spread of the marbled crayfish. Nature Ecology and Evolution: in press. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-018-0467-9

Nentwig W, Bacher S, Kumschick S, Pyšek P, Vilŕ M. More than “100 worst” alien species in Europe. Biological Invasions. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-017-1651-6

New Scholz S, Richter S, Wirkner CS. Constant morphological patterns in the hemolymph vascular system of crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda). Arthropod Structure & Development: in press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asd.2017.12.005

Vogt G. Investigating the genetic and epigenetic basis of big biological questions with the parthenogenetic marbled crayfish: A review and perspectives. Journal of Biosciences: in press. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12038-018-9741-x

NewOpen Access Weiperth A, Gál B, Kuříková P, Langrová I, Kouba A, Patoka J. Risk assessment of pet-traded decapod crustaceans in Hungary with evidence of Cherax quadricarinatus (von Martens, 1868) in the wild. North–Western Journal of Zoology: in press, e171303. http://biozoojournals.ro/nwjz/content/acc/nwjz_e171303_Weiperth_acc.pdf

2018 research papers

Císar P, Saberioon M, Kozák P, Pautsina A. 2018. Fully contactless system for crayfish heartbeat monitoring: undisturbed crayfish as bio-indicator. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 255(1): 29-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2017.07.160

NewOpen Access Maguire I, Klobucar G, Žganec K, Jelic M, Lucic A, Hudina S. 2018. Recent changes in distribution pattern of freshwater crayfish in Croatia - threats and perspectives. Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems 419: 2. https://doi.org/10.1051/kmae/2017053

2017 research papers

Benson A, Stadele C, Gahrs C, Vidal-Gadea A, Stein W. 2017. Behavioral consequences of RNA-mediated suppression of innexin expression in marbled crayfish. Illinois State University graduate student symposium. Normal, Illinois, March 2017. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/bbd8/0f8501fcf81c0605a61fc6cd1622f983f12f.pdf (Abstract only)

Biffis C. 2017. Comparative studies in the development of the nervous system in malacostracan crustaceans. Doctoral dissertation, Biology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. https://doi.org/10.18452/18061

Chucholl C, Wendler F. 2017. Positive selection of beautiful invaders: long-term persistence and bio-invasion risk of freshwater crayfish in the pet trade. Biological Invasions 19(1): 197-208. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-016-1272-5

Gutekunst J. 2017. Clonal genome evolution of the marbled crayfish, Procambarus virginalis. Doctoral thesis, Combined Faculties of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ruperto-Carola University Heidelberg. Heidelberg, Germany. 88 pp. https://doi.org/10.11588/heidok.00023501

Koutnik D, Stara A, Zuskova E, Kouba A, Velisek J. 2017. The chronic effects of terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy on early life stages of marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 136: 29-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2016.08.008

Kukule Kankanamge M. 2017. Analysis of chitinase activity. Master’s thesis, Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=bgsu1498843764486231

Open Access Levy T, Rosen O, Simons O, Alkalay AS, Sagi A. 2017. The gene encoding the insulin-like androgenic gland hormone in an all-female parthenogenetic crayfish. PLOS ONE 12(12): e0189982. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0189982

Open Access Lipták B, Mojžišová M, Grula D, Christophoryová J, Jablonski D, Bláha M, Petrusek A, Kouba A. 2017. Slovak section of the Danube has its well-established breeding ground of marbled crayfish Procambarus fallax f. virginalis. Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems 418: 40. https://doi.org/10.1051/kmae/2017029

Lyko F. 2017. Ein Krebs für die Krebsforschung. Biologie in unserer Zeit 47(3): 172–177. https://doi.org/10.1002/biuz.201710620

Lyko F. 2017. The marbled crayfish (Decapoda: Cambaridae) represents an independent new species. Zootaxa 4363(4): 544-552. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4363.4.6

NewOpen Access Marenkov O, Holoborodko K, Voronkova Y, Gorban V. 2017. Effect of zinc and cadmium ions on histostructure of antennal glands of marbled crayfish Procambarus fallax (Hagen, 1870) f. virginalis (Decapoda). Acta Biologica Universitatis Daugavpiliensis 17(2): 219–224. http://sciences.lv/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Marenkov.pdf

Open Access Oleh M, Julia K, Zoya S, Olexandra N, Oleh N, Bogdan D. 2017. Parameters of the histological adaptation of Marmorkrebs Procambarus fallax f. virginal (sic) (Decapoda, Cambaridae) to zinc and cadmium ions pollution. World Scientific News 90: 189-202. http://www.worldscientificnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/WSN-90-2017-189-202.pdf

Pârvulescu L, Togor A, Lele S-F, Scheu S, Şinca D, Panteleit J. 2017. First established population of marbled crayfish Procambarus fallax (Hagen, 1870) f. virginalis (Decapoda, Cambaridae) in Romania. BioInvasions Records 6(4): 357-362. https://doi.org/10.3391/bir.2017.6.4.09

Penk M, Saul W-C, Dick JTA, Donohue I, Alexander ME, Linzmaier S, Jeschke JM. A trophic interaction framework for identifying the invasive capacity of novel organisms. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 8(12): 1786–1794. https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.12817

Shiratori C, Suzuki N, Momohara Y, Shiraishi K, Aonuma H, Nagayama T. 2017. Cyclic AMP-regulated opposing and parallel effects of serotonin and dopamine on phototaxis in the Marmorkrebs (marbled crayfish). European Journal of Neuroscience 46(3): 1863–1874. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejn.13632

Open Access Uderbayev T, Patoka J, Beisembayev R, Petrtý M, Bláha M, Kouba A. 2017. Risk assessment of pet-traded decapod crustaceans in the Republic of Kazakhstan, the leading country in Central Asia. Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems 418: 30. https://doi.org/10.1051/kmae/2017018

Velisek J, Stara A, Zuskova E, Kouba A. 2017. Effects of three triazine metabolites and their mixture at environmentally relevant concentrations on early life stages of marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis). Chemosphere 175: 440-445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.02.080

Open Access Veselý L, Boukal DS, Buric M, Kozák P, Kouba A, Sentis A. 2017. Effects of prey density, temperature and predator diversity on nonconsumptive predator-driven mortality in a freshwater food web. Scientific Reports 7: 18075. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-17998-4

Vodovsky N, Patoka J, Kouba A. 2017. Ecosystem of Caspian Sea threatened by pet-traded non-indigenous crayfish. Biological Invasions 19(7): 2207-2217 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-017-1433-1

Open Access Vogt G. 2017. Facilitation of environmental adaptation and evolution by epigenetic phenotype variation: insights from clonal, invasive, polyploid, and domesticated animals. Environmental Epigenetics 3(1): dvx002. https://doi.org/10.1093/eep/dvx002

For more research papers, click here.


Popular press

Tropical_Fish_Hobbyist_March_2009 (78K)

Anonymous. 2007. British crayfish could be wiped out by alien species with the plague. The Daily Mail. 28 June 2007.
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-464965/British-crayfish-wiped-alien-species-plague.html

Anonymous. 2016. Cangrejo mármol, una curiosa especie invasora con dos caras. Real Jardín Botánico press release. 8 September 2016. http://www.rjb.csic.es/jardinbotanico/jardin/contenido.php?Pag=236&tipo=noticia&cod=5283

Coghlan A. 2003. Crayfish clones poised to invade European waters. New Scientist 2383 (22 February 2003).
http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg17723830.900-crayfish-clones-poised-to-invade-european-waters.html

Faulkes Z. 2009. How Marmorkrebs can make the world a better place. In: Rohn J (ed.), Grant RP (deputy ed.), Zivkovic B (series ed.), The Open Laboratory: The Best In Science Writing On Blogs 2008, pp. 86-87. Coturnix: Chapel Hill.
http://www.lulu.com/content/6110823
Original post: http://marmorkrebs.blogspot.com/2008/02/how-marmorkrebs-can-make-world-better.html

Faulkes Z. 2011. The decade the clones came. In: Goldman JG (ed.), Zivkovic B (series ed.), The Open Laboratory: The Best of Science Writing on the Web 2010, pp. 151-156. Coturnix: Chapel Hill.
http://www.lulu.com/product/paperback/the-open-laboratory-2010/15156343
Original post: http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=the-decade-the-clones-came-beware-t-2010-11-29

Fujiie H. 2017. War urged to destroy alien cloning mystery crayfish. The Asahi Shimbun (Japanese newspaper) news story. 13 April 2017. http://www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/AJ201704130011.html

German Cancer Research Center. 2015. A cray-active solution for cancer research. http://medicalxpress.com/news/2015-11-cray-active-solution-cancer.html

Heimer K. 2010. Invasion of self-cloning crayfish alarms Madagascar. Deutsche Presse-Agentur wire story.
http://www.earthtimes.org/articles/news/339974,alarms-madagascar-feature.html

Horton J. 2013. Scots wildlife at risk from alien crayfish breeds. The Scotsman. 21 April 2013.
http://www.scotsman.com/scotland-on-sunday/scotland/scots-wildlife-at-risk-from-alien-crayfish-breeds-1-2904005

Linzmaier S. 2016. Vom Aquarium in den See. Verbundjournal 106: 14-15.

Löwe K. 2010. Gefahr aus dem Aquarium. Mitteldeutsche Zeitung (Central German Newspaper) news story. 13 October 2010.
http://www.mz-web.de/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=ksta/page&atype=ksArtikel&aid=1286541137817&calledPageId=987490165154.

Pennisi E. 2015. Crayfish create a new species of female ‘superclones’. Science News ScienceShots. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aad1673

Privenau K. 2010. Marmorkrebs bringt Pest. Mitteldeutsche Zeitung (Central German Newspaper) news story. 12 October 2010.
http://www.mz-web.de/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=ksta/page&atype=ksArtikel&aid=1286541132341&calledPageId=987490165154

Robbins M. 2009. Owning clones. Tropical Fish Hobbyist 57(7): 72-74.
http://www.tfhmagazine.com/freshwater/feature-articles/owning-clones.htm

Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management. 2012. Discovery of marbled crayfish creates concern.
https://www.havochvatten.se/en/start/about-us/press-and-media/press-releases/press-releases/12-5-2012-discovery-of-marbled-crayfish-creates-concern.html

Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management. 2013. First analysis of marbled crayfish completed.
https://www.havochvatten.se/en/start/about-us/press-and-media/press-releases/press-releases/12-5-2012-discovery-of-marbled-crayfish-creates-concern.html


Laws

Missouri has added Marmorkrebs to its prohibited species list, effective 1 March 2011. Read more here. Tennessee designated Marmorkrebs as “Class V wildlife,” meaning they can only be kept by zoos, effective October 2015. Read more here and here.


External links

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This work by Zen Faulkes is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 United States License.

This site maintained by Zen Faulkes. Last updated 17 February 2018.